While Judaism had been less inclined to adopt aspects of surrounding cultures in the past, it became more open to including aspects from other religions while under foreign rule. The concept of Satan and angels, for example, may have come from the Zoroastrian religion of their Persian rulers. In fact, many aspects of both Judaism and Christianity seem to reflect the ideology of Zoroastrianism.
After the destruction of Jerusalem, Judaism was largely kept alive by the emergence of the rabbis. Under rabbinic tradition, Judaism became much more community oriented, and literacy and intelligence became highly esteemed in male Jews.
During some of the earlier years of the Middle Ages, the Jewish experienced a “Golden Age” under Islamic rule. While many Jews in Christian Europe were largely ostracized, the Jews under Islamic rule enjoyed, for a time, creative, medical, and philosophical advancement.